According to the CWC it is legal if it is used to produced obscuring smoke but this prohibition of the … Patients who survive for more than a week usually exhibit significant changes in fat and protein metabolism (including fatty degeneration) and severe jaundice (Blanke RV. 1971. White Phosphorus (P4) is a waxy fat soluble colorless or slightly yellow solid with a garlic smell that is not naturally occurring but is produced in the laboratory. Quote:I really don't understand why people is surprised that Israel is using white phosphorus. Initially the US forces claimed that they used WP just 'to illuminate enemy positions at night, not [directed] at enemy fighters' but and sent mixed signals about whether it considers it an incendiary devise or not and whether insurgents are targeted by the devise or it is merely used as a spectacular light and smoke devise (http://www.america.gov/st/washfile-english/2005/November/20051201140216mvyelwarc0.787594.html ). "It fired white phosphorus repeatedly over densely populated areas, even when its troops weren't in the area and safe smoke shells were available. It is usually dispersed by explosive munitions. Pictures show alleged Israeli use of white phosphorus munitions on a UN compound. The United Nations head quarters and a hospital in Gaza City were also bombed with white phosphorus. Most of the Israeli military's white phosphorus in Gaza was fired in 155mm artillery shells, each containing 116 wedges soaked with the chemical. In: Tietz NW, ed. This mixture was known as \"Fenian fire\" and allegedly was used by disgruntled itinerant workers in Australia to cause delayed destru… “Israel is using phosphorus illegally in Gaza Strip bombings,” B’Tselem, January 12, 2009, strip/20090112_use_of_white_phosphorus. UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon will present his report on the Gaza war to the UN General Assembly this week. 'WP proved to be an effective and versatile munition. This mixture was known as \"Fenian fire\" and allegedly was used by disgruntled itinerant workers in Australia to cause delayed destru… …,Israel's exclusions in signing: )Protocol III of the convention sets out prohibitions against use of incendiary weapons such as WP (Israel did not sign the protocol). WP can be used as an aid in target location and navigation. During these aggressive wars, the Israeli military used a number of American-made forbidden weapons: White Phosphorus, GBU-39 Shells, DIME bombs, Flechette Shells, Vacuum bombs, and […] Acute (5-30 minute) exposures to WP smoke caused deaths in experimental rats, mice, guinea pigs, and goats at concentrations of orthophosphoric acid and phosphorus pentoxide well below those that occur in military usage (Brown BJ, Affleck GE, Ferrand RL, et al.. 1980. When used as an incendiary weapon it works directly against personnel producing severe physical and psychological impacts and also destroys equipment of targeted troops. Yousef Al-Helou reports from the Gaza Strip. Julia Gillard, the Acting Prime Minister, angered Palestinian supporters over her refusal to condemn Israel's bombing campaign in which white phosphorus was used. The smoke that rose over Gaza five months ago wasn’t white phosphorus, but the goal was the same. UN staff made repeated telephone calls to the Israeli military asking them to stop but, at about 10am, six shells hit the compound, three of which contained white phosphorus. White phosphorus is believed to have been first used by Fenian arsonists in the 19th century in the form of a solution in carbon disulfide. We concluded that in Gaza, white phosphorus was likely used to harass and terrorise citizens in order to clear neighbourhoods, rather than as a ‘smoke screen’, as the Israeli military had claimed. Clothing or material that has WP should be discarded in water or allowed to burn in a safe location. WP was used to 'flush' insurgents out to kill them using other munitions: 'WP proved to be an effective and versatile munition. Q & A on Israel’s Use of White Phosphorus in Gaza Since the beginning of Israel’s ground offensive in Gaza on January 3, 2009, there have been numerous media reports about the … Use cold water to rinse and extinguish any areas of skin or clothing effected. This website has been produced with the assistance of the European Union. It is highly reactive with oxygen (ignites spontaneously upon drying and exposure to air) producing compounds like P4O6 (phosphorus pentoxide) and P4O10 which upon contact with water becomes oxophosphoric acids (aslternatively direct reaction with water can lead to phosphoric acid HPO4 through some intermediate compounds). Human Rights Watch called on the UN secretary-general, Ban Ki-moon, to launch an international commission of inquiry to investigate allegations of violations of international law in the Gaza war by the Israeli military and Hamas, the Palestinian Islamist movement that controls Gaza. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/wp.htm). [1] Azerbaijan and Armenia accused each other Wednesday of using weapons containing white phosphorus during weeks of recent fighting for control of the disputed Nagorno-Karabakh region. Bradley S. Klapper, “ICRC: Israel’s use of white phosphorus not illegal,” Associated Press , January 13, 2009. (see documentary ), At one point WP was used in rat poison and in fireworks but modern products do not have it because of potential health hazards. http://www.ccwtreaty.com/KeyDocs/ccwtreatytext.htm, http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/NORM/4F63DC0452DC95BEC1256402003FD28B?OpenDocument, http://www.ccwtreaty.com/KeyDocs/protocol3.html, The Geopolitical Status of Qalqiliya Governorate, Olive Harvest Season in Palestine: less land to harvest, less olive to pluck, Deir Jarir & Silwad: Two Palestinian villages Hammered by the Israeli Occupation, ASSESSING THE IMPACTS OF ISRAELI MOVEMENT RESTRICTIONS ON THE MOBILITY OF PEOPLE AND GOODS IN THE WEST BANK 2019, Only Proper Disengagement is the Guarantee of Peace, Increasing Attacks in Jerusalem during the month of October 2011, Saplings and reservoirs are threatened with destruction under the pretext of preserving archaeology, بذريعة أنها منطقة أثرية .. الاحتلال يخطر بإزالة غراس وخزانات للمياه في بلدة الزاوية / محافظة سلفيت, الاحتلال يهدم منشأة صناعية في واد قبون شمال الخليل, Israel to lead expansion in five settlements in the oPt, The Israeli occupation attempts at Judaizing the Tulkarm archeological site of Deir Samara, Al-Khas and Al Nu’man villages suffocated by the Israeli colonization. It killed two brothers in a classroom and severely injured their mother and cousin. Human rights groups say Israel is indiscriminately using white phosphorus in Gaza's densely populated areas. Protocol III of the convention sets out prohibitions against use of incendiary weapons such as WP (Israel did not sign the protocol). It must be used in a way that distinguishes between combatants and civilians and cannot be used to target civilians. Other shells were … The Israeli army has insisted white phosphorus shells were only used to provide smoke screens for their advancing ground troops. The phosphorus burn – a preliminary comparative experimental study of various forms of treatment. The white phosphorus landed next to some fuel trucks and caused a large fire which destroyed tons of humanitarian aid. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 10:314-330.). Other shells were photographed during the war with markings showing they were made in the Pine Bluff Arsenal, also in America, in 1991. • It chose not to use alternative and less dangerous smoke shells. In another case, on 17 January, an artillery shell that had already discharged its white phosphorus hit a UN school in Beit Lahiya, where 1,600 civilians were sheltering. Shouldn't it be band or designated as a chemical weapon as to avoid the use of this in war. Other common names include WP, and the slang term "Willie Pete," which is dated from its use in Vietnam, and is still sometimes used in military jargon. Human Rights Watch found 24 spent white phosphorus shells in Gaza, all from the same batch made in a US ammunition factory in 1989 by Thiokol Aerospace. 1935. 1987. The 71-pages-long Human Rights Watch (HRW) report, entitled “Rain of Fire: Israel’s Unlawful Use of White Phosphorous in Gaza,” states that even before the group’s researchers were able to enter Gaza, they had watched from adjacent perimeter areas in Israel as white phosphorus bombs exploded in the air over densely-packed residential areas in the Gaza Strip. Phosphorus al… 'I went to put it out, but another one landed on Mayar, my baby daughter. When Israel's use of white phosphorus emerged during the war, the military at first denied using the weapon, then said it only used weapons in accordance with international law. However, its use is regulated even by customary international law. The use of WP against civilians was banned in the 1980 convention titled 'Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects' (entered into force in December 1983 and is an annex to the Geneva Conventions 1949). The Applied Research Institute – Jerusalem. The report says: • Israel was aware of the dangers of white phosphorus. Israel's exclusions in signing: http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/NORM/4F63DC0452DC95BEC1256402003FD28B?OpenDocument). (Text from http://www.ccwtreaty.com/KeyDocs/ccwtreatytext.htm, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton greets employees as she arrives for her first day at the State Department in Washington, January 22, 2009. arij.org. That same year, Israeli forces launched artillery shells containing white phosphorus in the northern part of the besieged Gaza Strip during the 2009 war with Hamas. During these aggressive wars, the Israeli military used a number of American-made forbidden weapons: White Phosphorus, GBU-39 Shells, DIME bombs, Flechette Shells, Vacuum bombs, and […] White phosphorus has, however, been used as a weapon against civilians during this conflict... by HAMAS. Saunders Co, 833-889.). "In Gaza, the Israeli military didn't just use white phosphorus in open areas as a screen for its troops," said Fred Abrahams, a senior Human Rights Watch researcher. When the carbon disulfide evaporated, the phosphorus would burst into flames, and probably also ignite the highly flammable carbon disulfide fumes. Rinising with sodium bicarbonate solution helps neutralize acids. http://www.america.gov/st/washfile-english/2005/November/20051201140216mvyelwarc0.787594.html ). It’s full to the brim with solid white phosphorus. Ghada Abu Halima, 21, who was gravely injured by IDF white phosphorus in Gaza. We used it for screening missions at two breeches and, later in the fight, as a potent psychological weapon against the insurgents in trench lines and spider holes when we could not get effects on them with HE (High Explosive) Rounds. On one occasion during the conflict, the shells set ablaze a UN school where civilians were seeking shelter. Specially in … These is obviously more common in combat use of large amounts in shells as compared to usual spills or pollution from industrial production WP chunks may be shielded from oxygen (hence burning) either by falling into water that has little oxygen content or simply as pieces of solids that can linger in the environment for years without reacting or as intermediary combustion products (partial combustion) especially in soils or environments with limited oxygen content. Loay Subuh, blinded at age 9 by phosphorus bomb, wants to be example of steadfastness for others. White phosphorus is believed to have been first used by Fenian arsonists in the 19th century in the form of a solution in carbon disulfide. Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, Washington.). THIS is what will burn you. Its civilian uses include production of phosphoric acid and phosphate based fertilizers. White Phosphorus and its use in Gaza Press TV Images of WP use in Gaza White Phosphorus (P4) is a waxy fat soluble colorless or slightly yellow solid with a garlic smell that is not naturally occurring but is produced in the laboratory. The Los Angeles Times reported January 12 that 20 homes burnt, one women killed and several injured from the use of WP in Gaza writing:“One landed in my kitchen and caused a fire,' said Zohair Mohammed abu Rejila, 35. level 2 CiD7707 White phosphorus in Gaza: the victims Ayman al Najar, 13, tells how he lost his sister, grandfather and cousin in a bomb attack on 14 January in Khoza'a, southern Gaza. The report states that the military used white phosphorous bombs in civilian areas, with at least twenty phosphorous shells fired by a reserve paratroops brigade into a densely packed area of Beit Lahiya. A warehouse in a U.N. compound in Gaza that came under Israeli fire on Thursday was apparently hit by white-phosphorus shells, U.N. humanitarian affairs chief John Holmes said. REUTERS/Jonathan Ernst White phosphorous is like napalm: one resident of Gaza described his daughter literally melting before his eyes when she was hit by the stuff during Israeli attacks. The US Center for Disease Control states that it is reported to cause death an injury when inhaled, ingested, or had contact with the skin (whether after burns or without burning) http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp103-c2.pdf, The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) listed white phosphorus as a “Hazardous Air Pollutant” and requires spills of 1 pound or more to be reported to the EPA (Center for Disease Control report http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts103.html). White phosphorus smoke: Its irritating concentration for man and its toxicity for small animals for one-hour exposures. White phosphorus can cause severe injuries, burning directly through skin and bone. David Cronin 4 February 2015 He said senior commanders should be held to account. On Tuesday a mortar shell fired from. Israel used American-made white phosphorus shells in populated areas across the Gaza Strip. It said the Israeli military used white phosphorus in a "deliberate or reckless" way. On contact with oxygen, it produces a toxic, irritant smoke. January 11, 2009 Press TV Images of WP use in Gaza. Small pieces of … Hamza Abu Eltarabesh Gaza Strip 16 February 2016. Human Rights Watch says Israel has shot air bursts artillery-fired white phosphorus. US-made weapons prevent Gaza man from seeing his son. As a result, civilians needlessly suffered and died." Parts Protocol III relevantb to use of WP in Gaza include these: Article 1: 'Incendiary weapon' means any weapon or munition which is primarily designed to set fire to objects or to cause burn injury to persons through the action of flame, heat, or combination thereof, produced by a chemical reaction of a substance delivered on the target. The Israeli Government denies accusations of using white phosphorus but what is our proof that they are certainly not using this or if they are, it does not violate the Chemical Weapons Convention? (see documentary http://www.rainews24.rai.it/ran24/inchiesta/en/video.asp ) ). The rights group studied six cases in detail in which 12 civilians were killed and dozens more were injured. REUTERS/Jonathan Ernst Gaza phosphorus casualties relive Israel's three-week war Special Report: Tim Butcher in Gaza City argues why the true story about Israel's use of phosphorus shells may never emerge. “Human rights” organizations, the press, and Palestinians are conflating—mixing together—a smoke shell and a munition. Fire and smoke consumed the house, immediately killing two of Razia’s sisters as they slept side by side. 1970. Gaza into Israel contained white phosphorus An Amnesty International fact-finding team arrived in Gaza and reported finding evidence of the widespread use of white phosphorus munitions, including still-burning wedges of phosphorus, in heavily populated areas. So nothing is seen or photographed. Razia was rushed to a local Afghan army base, which could do little to help. British soldiers also made extensive use of white phosphorus grenades during the Falklands War to clear out Argentinepositions as the peaty soil they were constructed on tended to lessen the impact of fr… Such heat is produced by this reaction that the element bursts into a yellow flame and produces a dense white smoke. The group said it found no evidence that Hamas fighters used Palestinian civilians as human shields - a key Israeli claim - in the area at the time of the attacks it researched. The American 155mm M110A1 artillery shell is a white phosphorus MUNITION. White Phosphorus and its use in Gaza. no evidence the Jewish state was intentionally using phosphorus in a. questionable way, such as burning down buildings or consciously putting civilians at risk. White Phosphorus Use in Gaza White phosphorus is a chemical substance dispersed in artillery shells, bombs, rockets, or mortars, used primarily … Secretary of State Hillary Clinton greets employees as she arrives for her first day at the State Department in Washington, January 22, 2009. The same spokesperson explained that 'One technique is to fire a white phosphorus round into the position because the combined effects of the fire and smoke—and in some case the terror brought about by the explosion on the ground—will drive them out of the holes so that you can kill them with high explosives.' (http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/us-forces-used-chemical-weapon-in-iraq-515551.html ). Ann Surg 174:779-784.; Eldad A. Simon GA. 1991. Israel denied using WP at first, but admitted to using it in Gaza under media pressure. IDF soldiers who took part in the Gaza campaign also testified on the extensive use of white phosphorus, including direct fire on houses suspected of being booby-trapped (and not for “masking” purposes as the IDF later claimed). Around 200 of these shells were fired in the northern Gaza Strip … The warehouse was hit, causing at least $10m of damage, and it continued to burn for 12 days. WP substance is now known to cause what is known as phossy jaws (a degenerative condition affecting the soft tissue, bones, and teeth of the oral cavity) which has resulted in deaths due to secondary septicemias (Ward EF. White phosphorus munitions did not kill the most civilians in Gaza – many more died from missiles, bombs, heavy artillery, tank shells, and small arms fire – but their use in densely populated neighborhoods, including downtown Gaza City, violated international humanitarian law (the laws of war), which requires taking all feasible precautions to avoid civilian harm and prohibits indiscriminate attacks. When WP burns in the air in conditions of high oxygen, it generates smoke with an average aerosol mass concentration between 2,500 and 3,000 mg/m3, with the major components being polyphosphates, phosphine, and elemental phosphorus (Van Voris P, Cataldo DA, Ligotke MW, et al. 11 Jan 2009. Article 2. In the period 2008-2014, Zionist settler colonialists launched three aggressive wars against the Palestinians of the Gaza Strip: (1) Dec 2008-Jan 2009, (2) 14 Nov 2012, and (3) July-August 2014. Missiles containing white phosphorus were deployed. It is used by the military because it interacts with oxygen producing fire and smoke and can act both as a smokescreen, marking enemy areas and also to terrorize enemy combatants to leave fox holes and tunnels into more open areas where standard ammunition can be used on them. -- Israel is using white-phosphorus, a chemical that burns away human flesh to the bone, in shelling the densely-populated Gaza Strip, in a violation of international humanitarian laws, a leading international rights group said. The same spokesperson explained that 'One technique is to fire a white phosphorus round into the position because the combined effects of the fire and smoke—and in some case the terror brought about by the explosion on the ground—will drive them out of the holes so that you can kill them with high explosives.' 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