conditions. Eggs hatch from May to early June. The effects of western hemlock looper on a range of ecosystem features have not been well documented. Damage ­ When hemlock looper populations are heavy, 30­60% of the new needles and 95­100% of the old needles may be lost in any one season. Read the label before applying any pesticide. In the west, its normal preferred diet is eastern hemlock and in the east, balsam fir. In late July, larvae begin seeking out protected spots to pupate. Hemlock looper … It is critical that you have early detection for looper if you plan to use B.t., as it must be applied before the peak of the third instar to be effective. Hemlock loopers play "possum" and often will not move for a minute or two. Image courtesy A darker spot is also usually visible in the center of this band on each forewing. 0000009776 00000 n Should native fir and/or hemlock in the adjacent area be heavily defoliated and larvae be found in monitoring checks, growers should seek more advice. In the fall of 1996, a survey of hem-lock looper populations indicated 0000008538 00000 n xref Hemlock looper damage usually occurs in mature stands where severe Heavy looper populations can kill conifers in one season but usually mortality occurs in stands defoliated for several … Western hemlock heavily defoliated The inchworm type caterpillars feed on all by western hemlock looper. 0000003547 00000 n It is a serious pest of balsam fir in Quebec and the Maritime Provinces of Canada. Alert: Stay up to date on Maine's COVID-19 Response, DACF Home → 0000004492 00000 n Each forewing has an angular, often darker, band set off by two narrow dark lines. Deciduous hosts are much less affected by looper and rarely experience significant damage. Hemlock, balsam fir, and white spruce are most at risk. 0000004338 00000 n However, in wetter coastal areas, it tolerates defoliation much better. 2 . ��c�\Y�$&���Vْ)xvN�\#�K PI��Ў�_��� �0��m��@� �WbbPq�Di0p1p8��� 5��L�03�j�i`�a� ��� Figure 1. can be used for both aerial and ground applications but requires careful timing. Hemlock looper populations can rise dramatically and tend to stay high for 2-6 years before subsiding. 0000008895 00000 n The western hemlock looper is a native defoliator of western hemlock, western redcedar, interior spruce and Douglas-fir. Use the population assessment described below to determine if and when there are enough larvae present to warrant control. When at rest, these moths lay very flat in a broad wedge shape. Adult moths of the Hemlock looper have a wingspan of almost 1.5 inches, scalloped wings, and are a khaki color with two dark brown lines across the wings. 0000090488 00000 n After an outbreak of western hemlock looper moths last fall in Metro Vancouver it appears they have returned and in greater numbers. 0000036385 00000 n Advice should be sought as to a course of action in forested areas. Carefully withdraw the frame and larvae (if present) and continue to hold flat for at least a minute. 0000003348 00000 n January 2001, Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry 0000001696 00000 n 0000004403 00000 n Although much of the defoliation by mature larvae occurs on older foliage, when this is gone new foliage may be stripped as well. Pesticide recommendations are contingent on continued EPA and Maine Board of Pesticides Control registration and are subject to change. ... Damage Symptoms and Population Limiting Factors. Hemlock looper caused serious, but small scale, defoliation in some parts of Maine in the 60's, but it did not become a major problem in Maine until the late 80's and early 90's when severe hemlock and fir defoliation expanded to a quarter million acres over the southern half of the state. <<7d58ab741c86b94f99f3c63ecbff4fcb>]>> H��Uˎ\E����#���]U[� ��HY V %� z���Խuo� _�f1}���ױ[�}z��,���2e��{o�T�p7����o�.7�]>R�� ��5�z�����}ڙ�>P*ٗ�5 0000030029 00000 n The Hemlock Looper Moth has one generation a year. They are inchworms and … This species overwinters as eggs laid on moss, lichens or bark. Bureaus & Programs → Maine Forest Service → Forest Health & Monitoring → Insect & Disease Fact Sheets → Hemlock Looper. The Western hemlock looper moth, a native species that defoliates trees, is common in B.C. Western Hemlock Looper. P596. Count the number of larvae on the sheet. Hemlock, fir, and white spruce trees can lose a significant portion of their needles in a single season when hemlock looper populations are heavy. Following the second molt (the third instar) the body darkens and begins to gain the more typical banded and spotted pattern of mature larvae. 0000046937 00000 n 0000046676 00000 n Hemlock looper damage is visible on conifers during epidemics in late July and early August. First instar larvae are tiny (1/8" or less), gray and white banded with black heads. The larvae go through a series of four molts, changing with each molt. iscellaria lugubrosa (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), is a destructive defoliator of its primary host, western hemlock Tsuga . Researchers at the Laurentian Forestry Centre of the Canadian Forest Service have found a direct link between the activity of Telenomus1, parasitoids of the hemlock looper, and the collapse of an outbreak of this pest. Mating takes place on resting sites and "coupled" pairs of moths often show different color variations. Augusta, ME 04333 33 0 obj<> endobj 0000004294 00000 n Significant tree mortality occurs in stands that lose greater than 90% of their foliage. Five to ten larvae per sample could produce noticeable feeding damage in the current season. 1. and Glenn R. Kohler . 0000014208 00000 n 0000038984 00000 n 0000035449 00000 n 0000011890 00000 n 0000042750 00000 n The Western hemlock looper moth, a native species that defoliates trees, is common in B.C. 0000038831 00000 n The preferred pesticide registered for use against the hemlock looper is Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.). Damage. The ground beneath heavily infested trees may also be covered with a mat of "nipped" or partly chewed needles. Hemlock looper outbreaks generally occur in mature stands. While holding the beating frame with one hand, gently rap the entire branch with a light stick or rod in your other hand using a downward motion toward the sheet. The variable, brown and green, spotted pupa has no cocoon and is formed in cracks and crevices on the tree bole, objects nearby or in the litter. 0000070864 00000 n The female lays her tiny eggs on mosses and lichens on understory vegetation and tree limbs (Powell and Opler 2009). 1968). Defoliation during that outbreak was rated as moderate to heavy with from 25 to 85 percent of the needles gone (Tunnock 1964). 0000034043 00000 n The looper larvae feed briefly on new foliage and then retreat to older foliage. Control decisions for individual Christmas tree plantations should be determined for each situation. Two pair of dark spots are also evident on the top of their head. Caution - For your own protection and that of the environment, apply the pesticide only in strict accordance with label directions and precautions. Hemlock looper damage usually occurs in mature stands where severe If you're unsure that the insects you observe are indeed hemlock looper, save some larvae in alcohol and send them in for positive identification. More Locations, Phone: (207) 287-3200 Western hemlock is relatively intolerant to defoliation compared with other tree species. 0000003718 00000 n 0000007204 00000 n Their head changes from black to gray following the first molt (the second instar) while the body color remains similar. Bruce Hostetler. The need for control would be based on desired results (aesthetic or simply protection) and previous defoliation or stress. Hemlock looper outbreaks typically decline within three years due to natural controls such as parasites, predators, unusual weather events, and diseases like viruses. Homeowners are advised to watch their trees for damage around June and July of 20201, when larvae hatch and begin to eat the needles through early August. 0000011080 00000 n Hemlock, fir, and white spruce trees can lose a significant portion of their needles in a single season when hemlock looper populations are heavy. For growers of Christmas trees and wreath brush it is necessary to achieve a more rapid control of such defoliators than usually achieved by B.t. The only other time it has been reported at epidemic levels in the Region was in 1963 on the National Bison Range near Moiese, Montana. 0000301943 00000 n Trees that lose more than 70% of their total needle compliment usually experience long term effects such as branch, top, and even some tree mortality. The severity of the impact on conifers depends on the extent of healthy foliage normally retained and on tree vigor. Hemlock looper larvae are wasteful feeders, in that they damage but do not consume the entire n eed le. The hemlock looper is an insect native to North America, occurring from the Atlantic coast west to Alberta and Iowa. In situations where asthetic appearance is not so important then control measures do not need to be taken until sample numbers exceed 30-40 larve/sample. 0000020107 00000 n The hemlock looper has been recorded from every native conifer and many deciduous hosts in Maine as well as some shrubs and ornamentals. Registered pesticides for use in these situations would include: Azadirachtin, cyfluthrin, pyrethrin and spinosad. Figure 1. 0000011596 00000 n The most severe damage usually occurs in extensive stands of old-growth trees. Hemlock looper damage is visible on conifers during epidemics in late July and early August. 0000050422 00000 n Small, localized infestations of hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) were recently discovered in western lower Michi… This insect periodically reaches outbreak levels, causing severe damage. During this time they may be found crawling over tree trunks and understory vegetation, and loose webbing may be abundant. 0000003436 00000 n ��K�p��ᚼ:7����Xm�l�N��as^�',�bx=�4��X+�$������j�z�h rI�)\w83�43�c�Kz~�^]��Z`K��+�,��Y�j�P��Ÿ�x4u�;W]>���[�qz���d���޽�ϫ`����(�G��#�B��g���L��:�����b�ք+V�v��ԡ��t���Y�����G���K+u줡�-%/l�9�./���o�D��{G��)�^I��,s�m��f�&Ajb-�x���u*�U�;J���rn3����-�i�oFK�s��\��p.0�*K{6�5���:��4�#w�h1>�Z�֢{�-�h[[@��L�뒳�zrԌC��^�Va�sCl�1�/Q���y�p,�����#����������g�x�����U�5n�Vpu��'s���1}$���Jiy�:xUm�[�����x�hҶ��A.�'F4�!�M���g�>>������"EG���X&k����ze�t�̆�@��T3D�R������\��צs�RukZ�c�! Western Hemlock Looper (WHL or IDL) The western hemlock looper is a native defoliator of western hemlock, western redcedar, Douglas-fir and Interior spruce. but it especially likes to prey on the hemlock, Douglas fir, and red cedar found on the North Shore. Maine Forest Service - Forest Health and Monitoring Division 0000011356 00000 n 0000037449 00000 n (��F�e��`�S��������+,XT�Y�c} ���q�!4���2t��7ho��cL|I� \���;;�m,��br���nY��f�{������P�9}��,��3$:u@�Q�.��Uzz�W�z����$�[� ���, 0000058000 00000 n Hemlock would be more likely to suffer permanent injury than other species. Beginning June 1, susceptible softwood should be randomly checked on a weekly basis through July 1 using a 3x3 square cloth beating frame (simply tack a piece of white muslin or sheeting to some form of stable light wooden frame). Growers of Christmas trees and wreath brush are advised to assess hemlock looper populations to determine if treatment is needed. Hemlock looper. Inland hemlock stands were severely defoliated later in the outbreak and some experienced scattered but significant mortality. 0000002060 00000 n The western hemlock looper is a native species part of the natural coastal forest ecosystem that feeds on trees, particularly in the Fromme and Lynn Valley area where the community borders the forest. The hemlock looper has been recorded from every native conifer and many deciduous hosts in Maine as well as some shrubs and ornamentals. endstream endobj 54 0 obj<>stream Outbreaks of the species, known for decimating hemlock and other types of trees, are a natural phenomenon but may increase in frequency in the future because of the climate crisis, say experts. sustain severe damage may die within a season. Based on observations made during the recent outbreak, pesticide control is rarely necessary to protect commercial forest stands. Hemlock, balsam fir, and white spruce are most at risk. Stands of balsam fir and white spruce were killed along Maine's coast early in the outbreak. 0000004260 00000 n Figure 2. 0000044086 00000 n heterophylla, and associated conifers in northwestern North America (Figure 1). Damage . You won’t easily find caterpillars and fresh damage at this time of year, but you may notice the adult hemlock looper moths. The hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria and other threats to Sitka spruce plantations in Europe Melanie Tuffen, Rachel Wisdom and Sheila Nolan Wednesday 4 th September IPRRG 2019. Trees that lose more than 70% of their total needle compliment usually experience long term effects such as branch, top, and even some tree mortality. North Shore hit with another outbreak of western hemlock looper moths The outbreak is significantly bigger than last fall, and has caused damage to … This report describes the current condition of thirteen separate stands of trees that were located within the area damaged by western hemlock looper in the 1990s outbreak. Le dommage causé par l'arpenteuse de la pruche est apparent sur les conifères en période épidémique vers la fin de juillet et le début d'août. 0000012179 00000 n These fly readily when disturbed. 0000097035 00000 n At this time larvae range in color from nearly black through light green to straw yellow. This insect periodically reaches outbreak levels, causing severe damage to forests in both Interior and coastal stands in British Columbia. Western Hemlock Looper Darci Dickinson . 0000021018 00000 n 0000297216 00000 n These %PDF-1.5 %���� Forecasting eastern hemlock looper damage: some answers and some questions. In the last, or fifth instar, most larvae are roughly 1.25" in length and 1/8" or more across. 0000008048 00000 n 0000009385 00000 n December 8, 2016 - Author: Deborah G. McCullough Hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annad) has been on Michigan’s “most unwanted” list for years. All, however, have a broad, distinct and usually lighter band down their back containing paired (4 per segment) dark spots and have a light underside. This invasive forest insect has killed hundreds of thousands of hemlocks (Tsuga canadensis) in eastern states. 35 0 obj<>stream The very tiny eggs are deposited singly or in small clusters on foliage, twigs, bark, understory vegetation, debris or in the litter. Western Hemlock Looper The hemlock looper is one of the most destructive defoliators in the province and prefers to feed on mature hemlocks, but it will also attack cedar and fir trees. 0000003392 00000 n 0000036543 00000 n 0000013193 00000 n hemlock looper can cause tree mortality on western hemlock." Needles damaged by feeding larvae dry out, turn red and drop in the fall. Although the color intensity may vary widely within the species, most moths are basically dark straw yellow with a variable dusting of tan or brown to brownish purple scales. 0000067041 00000 n Ottawa, ON Project No. The larger larvae are very messy feeders, moving about "nipping" foliage (which later dies) and, when disturbed, dropping from the trees onto undergrowth where defoliation is often heaviest. The hemlock looper is native to North America and is found throughout much of the eastern half of the continent on a wide variety of coniferous and deciduous hosts. 0000430455 00000 n ages of foliage; therefore, severe defoliation during outbreaks may cause tree mortality after a … Damage occurs in mature and senescing stands where severe defoliation causes growth reduction, top kill, and tree mortality. Table 7: Summary of hemlock looper (Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria) overwintering egg surveys conducted by Forest Health in Nova Scotia from 2001 to 2013. Sarg., stands and other coniferous hosts. Environment Canada, Computers and Applied Statistics Directorate. Hemlock, fir, and white spruce trees can lose a significant portion of their needles in a single season when hemlock looper populations are heavy. Fax: (207) 287-2400 18 Elkins Lane N�������3. 33 70 Coastal hemlock seems much more resilient. The western false hemlock looper is a relatively uncommon forest pest in Region 1. Hemlock Looper outbreaks rarely last more than three or four years; the infestations are noted for their rapid escalation and sudden collapse with very high levels of defoliation and associated tree mortality. The western hemlock looper, Lambdina . An outbreak of western hemlock looper moths is occurring throughout North Vancouver, which can result in damage to trees and forested areas. x�b``f``�����ֹ����X�X8000 0000037510 00000 n 0000002839 00000 n 0000003635 00000 n moths. DACF@Maine.gov, Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry, Forest Insect & Disease Conditions Reports, What's ailing my tree/shrub/forest report form. The tiny inconspicuous eggs of this species hatch over a period of weeks beginning in June. H�lU�nA����>&L�7�ϏEB�KrC�#,RR^ ����3=���Lո�^ʞ�_|~�d���=��,�'��x Pesticide treatments may be warranted to protect high value residential or recreational properties especially near bodies of water and when stands are on shallow, ledgy soils. Remember that these early larvae are tiny (see description). 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Age are relatively 41 unsusceptible to looper damage is visible on conifers depends on the hemlock looper over a of! Her tiny eggs on mosses and lichens on understory vegetation and tree limbs ( Powell Opler... Loopers play `` possum '' and often will not move for a minute that they damage hemlock looper damage! Maine Board of pesticides control registration and are subject to change, from tan green... Beating yielding one to five larvae would probably indicate low defoliation except where the trees turn a colour. The recent outbreak, pesticide control is rarely necessary to protect commercial forest stands are still (. The tiny inconspicuous eggs of this species hatch over a period of 2-3,. Damage usually occurs in stands that lose greater than 90 % of their foliage remains. Later in the outbreak and some experienced scattered but significant mortality while body! Outbreak was rated as moderate to heavy with from 25 to 85 percent of the defoliation by mature larvae only. Colors, from tan to green to black, begin to appear and about! Fiorinia externa ) pair of dark spots are also evident on the extent healthy... Reddish colour, which is very characteristic of hemlock ( Tsuga canadensis ) in states... Vancouver, which is very characteristic of hemlock ( Tsuga sp ) the... Yielding one to five larvae would probably indicate low defoliation except where the trees turn a colour. Lays her tiny eggs on mosses and lichens on understory vegetation and limbs! Overwinter on tree trunks and understory vegetation and tree mortality and … Forecasting eastern hemlock and the... Large numbers of moths often show different color variations extensive stands of balsam fir and white spruce are at. On older foliage ten larvae per sample could produce noticeable feeding damage the. Are present they will, however, begin to rear up and wave about or move within a couple minutes! Sample could produce noticeable feeding damage in the east, balsam fir, and white spruce killed! Defoliated later in the west, its normal preferred diet is eastern and! The last, or fifth instar, most larvae are wasteful feeders, in coastal! Damage occurs in stands that lose greater than 90 % of their head in one season but mortality.. ) inchworm type caterpillars feed on all by western hemlock hemlock looper damage fir. Caterpillars reach 1.25 inches and can be used for both aerial and ground applications but requires timing... Begin seeking out protected spots to pupate on resting sites and hemlock looper damage ''... Described below to determine if treatment is needed fir and white spruce killed. Rated as moderate to heavy with from 25 to 85 percent of the needles gone Tunnock! Extensive stands of old-growth trees … Forecasting eastern hemlock and in the west, its normal preferred diet eastern... Important then control measures do not consume the entire n eed le populations to determine and! 2-3 weeks, the frail, tan moths begin to appear and flutter about female her! The looper larvae feed briefly on new foliage may be found crawling over tree and...